I. About Us
Why have you founded CityPathways (cPaths)?
Having worked in NYC education and youth development in the nonprofit, philanthropic, and public sectors for many years, we know what an extraordinary array of youth-serving organizations permeate our city. We also know that youth from under-resourced communities do not benefit from these opportunities to the degree they could. While NYC benefits from a rich array of community and cultural resources and opportunities, very few resources exist to help students and families explore which possibilities hold most interest and learning value. We haven’t had a systemic way to map what’s out there, match young people (and families) to menus of experiences of greatest interest and value for them, make sure that these opportunities are accessible and engaging, and mobilize them towards next steps— future opportunities that continue to broaden students’ exposure and knowledge and deepen their engagement with the city and the resources it offers.
cPaths aims to provide connective tissue, creating a marketplace to optimize existing resources with a user-centered orientation through connecting these resources to interests of students, whether that be music, “making,” or Minecraft. cPaths also hopes to surface gaps in the hopes of creating more equitable distribution of programming across the city, bolstering provision of activities in low income areas. We're excited to harness the good work and good will of our cultural institutions and community based organizations and harvest it for youth who can benefit most. We've met with more than 100 organizational stakeholders who are enthusiastic about being involved in an ecosystem approach such as this and know many others are interested as well. We need to make every space a learning space--and we can.
Why are you the right people to start and lead this? What inspired you to start this?
20+ years of working in education, on the front line of some of the most promising and powerful reforms, and deep experiential understanding of the peril and the promise. The throughline of our careers has been pursuing equity, excellence, and innovation in education through the vehicles we believe can have the greatest impact. After years working for the NYC Department of Education during a time of massive change and improvement, we couldn’t help but realize that schools alone can’t solve the achievement gap, and that what we really need to tackle is the opportunity gap, which goes well beyond the school doors.
By the time kids reach 6th grade, youth in low-income communities have accrued the equivalent of 6000 hours less of learning than their more affluent peers through a combination of in and out of school learning and enrichment in their homes and communities. That’s a huge mountain of inequality at an early and formative age. It can’t be solved solely by schools. School-age children in fact spend just 18.5% of their time in school! Luckily, we live in New York City where we are blessed to have a cornucopia of community and cultural assets that can be leveraged to enrich kids’ experiences and skills IF they are made accessible and engaging in an ongoing way. NYC currently lacks a coherent way of mapping and matching kids to experiences that could be game changers for them. Further, the city hasn’t created viable means for low income youth to engage in such experiences over time, in progressive cycles of learning through which they can develop comfort, knowledge, and skills that can serve them well as they move forward in life.
We’ve been in touch with over a hundred leaders of youth serving organizations, city agencies, schools, community groups, families, and students about cPaths and there is enormous appetite for what we’re aspiring to do. There is also recognition that it’s an essential vehicle for addressing the opportunity gap and optimizing NYC’s assets for young people in NYC.
What are you trying to accomplish?
Mobility--in all sense of the word. It’s hard to want to go where you don’t know. Nichole Pinkard writes and speaks eloquently about this: “youth don’t aspire to do something unless they have been given an opportunity to do it or come from an environment in which the job/role is part of the norm. We all aspire to do what is in our surroundings.” We have to show youth who have not had positive experiences in cultural and community organizations a different kind of experience AND demonstrate how such experiences can help them build skills that will lead to other opportunities that are meaningful to them.
We want to help kids find passion, purpose, and progress--keys to motivation--and to develop curiosity and comfort. We want to help them build agency, mindfulness, and attention strategies. We want to shift from youth as consumers to youth as producers. We want to expand learning beyond what just happens in school.
What are your greatest challenges?
Pacing and prioritization. cPaths is a big vision for inducing systems change and societal change. Breaking it into bite-sized pieces we can prototype and iterate upon for v.1, v. 2 and forward has been challenging as there is such great need and opportunity. Fortunately, we’ve learned a lot about change management and systems-level change over the course of our careers, particularly on the frontlines through the heyday of the Bloomberg/Klein education reforms, which informs our strategic planning. We’ve also learned a lot about human-centered design, agile production cycles, minimal viable prototypes, and iteration cycles through incubating at Thoughtworks in 2014-5.
What’s your vision for the world in 10 years with your venture in it?
World peace and unilateral happiness and prosperity. OK, that might take 12. In 10 years, if we can develop, scale, and sustain cPaths, we're confident that we’ll see greatly improved high school and college graduation rates and attainment of just right jobs that provide livable wages and upward mobility by lengthening and strengthening the pipeline. Starting during the early teen years and giving students a sense of passion, purpose, and progress--Dan Pink’s key drivers of motivation and mastery-- is key. A vital part of this will entail making the practice of "youth brokering" common place. “Youth brokering” entails enriching young people's social and knowledge networks by connecting them to meaningful learning opportunities including events, programs, internships, individuals, and institutions that support them in extending and expanding their interest-driven learning and equipping them for future learning opportunities.
II. Impact: Why This Matters
What do you perceive as the foremost benefits of CityPathways? What makes it different than myriad other out-of-school programs out there?
cPaths ISN’T just another youth program--it’s an enhancer of existing programs, and more. It optimizes and integrates existing youth resources and makes sure they reach kids who can benefit most--those who are often NOT reached by existing programs due to various kinds of barriers. While early teens are our stated target audience, the near peer CITYCoaches (ages 17-22) are in fact equal beneficiaries. We are helping THEM see paths as they explore civic, cultural, and environmental sites throughout the city that many of THEM haven’t been to or seen as places of interest and opportunity. We are committing to support our near peer mentors in broadening their horizons and enhancing their ability to pursue professional paths that are right for them.
City agencies are also key beneficiaries. We have been in conversation with the NYC Department of Education, Department of Youth and Community Development, the Mayor’s Office of Strategic Initiatives, the Mayor’s Advancement Fund, Office of Operations, Cultural Affairs, Parks, and Workforce Development. ALL of them have expressed deep interest in developing more connective tissue around serving youth. We think that cPaths can move the needle for this. One noted that something like CityPathways should really be a public utility in every city--like water and electricity--to make sure the city’s resources are transparent and truly accessible. We hope cPaths will become this.
We also believe that developing a “heat map” of youth resources--where they are (and aren’t), who’s going (and not going)--will help the city make more informed decisions about how to allocate resources for new programs, and help organizations decide where they want to provide more programming based on need and interest.
Why do you feel the early teenage years are the right age band to target? Isn’t it too far away from when kids will be working to be meaningful? And aren’t they just walking hormones in sneakers?
Early adolescence is vital. It’s a peak period of identity formation, inclusive of forging who one is in the world and who one can become in the world. Scholar Linda Gottfredson coined a theory called “career circumscription” to explain how young people choose their career directions.
Circumscription is the process by which youth narrow the territory in order to carve out a social space from the full menu they believe culture offers them. It’s a four stage process. Stage 3 runs between age 9-13 during which young people develop their orientation towards social valuation.
Compromise is the process by which young people relinquish their most preferred options for less compatible but more accessible ones. We all tend to select those positions within our social space based on what we believe is available to us. As such, it is during these early teen years that too many young people in under-resourced communities stop believing that they can be anything they want to be, which compromises their career aspirations. Intervening and creating exposure and exploration prior to age 14 has implications that reverberate throughout the rest of life and we KNOW it’s far better and cheaper to practice preventative medicine than emergency room triage later in life.
Laurence Steinberg’s work is also essential to consider in this vein. His 2015 book Age of Opportunity: Lessons from the New Science of Adolescence makes clear that adolescence is exactly that: an age of opportunity. There’s been a lot of attention to preK of late, and there should be, but early adolescence is as important as early childhood in a lot of ways. Important parts of the brain--like executive functioning, which helps the brain organize and act on information--are developing. Parts of the brain are being pruned and if they’re not activated and utilized, they literally disappear--which is part of what explains why kids are so inquisitive and many adults often FAR less so. We have a critical window of time to intervene to fortify curiosity and zest and many of the “non-cognitive skills” that are make or break factors in successful and stimulating lives (see Paul Tough’s How Children Succeed or the Chicago Consortium’s Teaching Adolescents to Be Learners for more on this.)
People think of adolescents as apathetic. And they can be--when they are uninterested. But when they’re motivated, MOVE OVER, for they are forces of nature! cPaths harnesses what the adolescent brain is craving--novelty and sensation-seeking (which can lead to unhealthy risk-taking OR can be channeled towards the stimulation of new places and experiences) and social affirmation (from their peer posse and their college coaches)--and couples it with the supports needed to get over the barriers low income youth face in pursuing city-based experiences (like subway fare and chaperones!)
III. Nuts and Bolts: How Will You Make This Work
What do you mean by “exploratory expeditions”? What will kids ACTUALLY be doing?
We want kids to develop a keen sense of the panoply of possibilities available in their city AND a keen vision for why they’d want to go.
We want our youth to experience mainstream venerable institutions like the Met and the American Museum of Natural History as well as lesser known gems like the National Jazz Museum of Harlem, the Museum of the Chinese in lower Manhattan, and the Noguchi Museum in Long Island City, Queens. We may also want to introduce them to tiny, off the grid venues like the Tattoo Museum in Staten Island and Torah Animal World in Borough Park, Brooklyn where they can interact with all of the animals in the bible, stuffed and mounted. Really.
And we’re not just talking about museums and cultural institutions--we’re mapping parks and community gardens, recreation centers, YMCAs, libraries. New York is a treasure trove--but not if you don’t know it or care about it.
We envision the city becoming a giant scavenger hunt for kids, in which they “collect” skills and knowledge at each stop. We talk about the notion of NYC as “gameboard of opportunities” and situating students to be able to see the glittery prizes and what they need to do to attain them. We want to build young people's capacity to know and navigate the city and feel comfortable going anywhere and interacting with anyone. This comes from experience and exposure.
Among the many benefits from this is that youth will preview careers in the arts, a sector that is thriving in NYC: As per Creative New York, a report from the Center for an Urban Future that came out last week, employment in film and television production soared by 53% over the past decade, while architecture (33%), performing arts (26%), advertising (24%), visual arts (24%) and applied design (17%) all outpaced the city’s overall employment growth (12%). cPaths will preview all kinds of careers, and arts are an important part of this.
Isn't this just field trips by another name? Can we afford that during a time of recession?
Nope, this isn’t just field trips. The differences are several fold
cPaths youth, in collaboration with their CITY coaches, have choice about where they want to go. They help plan their trips, with guidance and support from their coach and in collaboration with other kids.
cPaths youth build portfolios of skills, helping promote their reflection about what they’re doing and learning while keeping it fun.
cPaths youth are supported in continually having a next step--where will they go and what will they do next--that will help them in attaining larger, longer-term goals.
Although cPaths isn’t just field trips, field trips matter! Jay Greene (generally a social and fiscal conservative!) published an academic study on the Educational Value of Field Trips in Education Next in Winter 2014. Based on his analysis of trips to the Crystal Bridges Museum of American Art in Arkansas found that students, especially those in rural or poor schools, gained skills like critical thinking, historical empathy, and tolerance after attending field trips.
Yet in an American Association of School Administrators' survey of school leaders on how they had made changes since the recession, about 43% said they considered eliminating field trips in the 2012-13 school year. cPaths can provide an important supplement to what's not happening as much at schools anymore.
Why and how will this work? How do expeditions lead to employment?
Our exploratory expeditions are a point of entry, not a destination, during a peak period in identity formation. It’s vital to provide young people whose spheres of experience and access have been sorely limited with alternative scenarios--to spark their passions and provide pathways through which to build skills towards prospective futures. Despite living in a big city, lives can be very small. cPaths helps youth understand what’s available to them, and develop comfort in new environments, which they’ll need as they progress in life. We help them develop critical self awareness and self-advocacy skills to propel them forward--with props and peers (preteens are pack animals!)
We believe there is a continuum from Exposure --> Exploration --> Apprenticeship --> Expertise. We are currently focusing on ensuring that vulnerable youth benefit from the first two phases--Exposure and Exploration--so that they will be able to continue on in the continuum, and hope to engage in more advanced pipelining as our programming grows.
Our CITY coaches are a critical intervention. We describe them as part soccer moms, part sherpas. They develop strong relationships with our youth and literally get them from point A to point B. Further, they provide them with a combination of affirmation and nudges that are important in egging them on; Steinberg writes about the importance of “authoritative parenting/mentoring” that provides the combination of this to help adolescents develop self-regulation and self-knowledge. Anyone who has spent time with an early adolescent knows that the best conversations often happen in transit--youth feel less on the spot and can open up in a more informal way, which our coaches are coached to capitalize on. They’re also coached to ask questions that help bolster critical thinking.
The reality is, NY has programs and services that can support success for kids to move beyond the meager circumstances of their lives. What we DON’T have are great ways of harnessing them and getting them to kids who can benefit from them most. That’s a vital part of cPaths--creating connective tissue across organizations and institutions to facilitate an ecoosystem of opportunity and assistance. It’s about linking and leveraging, eliminating barriers, and creating onramps. Youth need to know what’s out there, have a reason to want to go, have a way to get there, have awesome experiences, and have clear next steps for their next adventure. That’s intoxicating--and self reinforcing!
Aren’t schools all consumed with Common Core and high stakes testing? How realistic is it to ‘afford' time for cPaths?
This is a very real dilemma for schools. Yes, school time and curricula have been increasingly constrained, making the need for cPaths all the more vital. There was an article in the Wall Street Journal in June 2015 that talked about the rise of “virtual fieldtrips” over real field trips since the recession, and shared results from a survey of school leaders that revealed that 43% of school leaders considered eliminating field trips in the 2012-3 school year. Yet if we asked most of you what you remember most from school, we suspect extracurriculars and field trips would come to mind first. Our goal is to make those experiences as nutritive as they can be, by ensuring that they’re of INTEREST to youth, that they EXPAND youth’s horizons, that they BUILD their skills, and that they BROADEN youth’s knowledge and social capital and network.
We also work to make linkages to what youth are learning in school and to what they want to do in life, so that they’re not just doing one shot trips, as is too often be the case for low income youth, but that it’s part of a connected learning process in which experiences build upon one another. We continually help youth think about their next steps based upon longer term visions of where they see themselves going in life. While we recognize that young people’s goals will and should change many times in their youth and teen-dom, we believe that using their current aspirations as a Northstar from which to navigate provides important motivation.
We would be remiss if we didn’t mention Common Core, polarizing though it can be. cPaths is all about Common Core--in the real world. We link to core standards AND work to contextualize them in the real world so that young people can understand the application of them and thereby CARE about them more. Furthermore, the writing that they do has an authentic audience of other teens--for example in their Yelp for Youth reviews--so they’re more invested in presenting their thoughts in clear and interesting ways.
What’s the competitive landscape? Who else is doing something like this? Who are you in competition with and who are you collaborating with?
Unfortunately, while the building blocks are here, nobody in New York is doing anything QUITE like this, hence our feelings of urgency. (Nationally, we love LRNG's Cities of Learning and Pittsburgh’s Remake Learning Network.) In the “adult world,” there are lots of enterprises tapping into mapping and reviewing opportunities or events or restaurants like Yelp and FourSquare. But there’s surprisingly little for youth, even though of course youth often want what the adult world has. There’s an enterprise called RedRover, and one called Thrively that Sanda has worked with, but they both do mappings geared more for middle class kids, with many fee-based activities or things that require a parent or babysitter to shuttle you.
We have designed cPaths specifically for high-needs kids in under-resourced communities so that they can participate in ‘the arms race of the affluent’ around enrichment: affluent parents spend over $8K a year on out-of-school learning. We are committed to eliminating ALL the barriers that can keep low income kids from participating. We describe our cPaths coaches as part sherpa, part soccer mom as they help kids get from point A to point B and make them feel cool to be hanging out with an older teen at a time when the urban armor of adolescence interferes with parents serving in this way even if they could. Our CITY Coaches literally pick kids up and drop them off at their doorstep to ensure that they are safe AND that they show up AND that they use commuting time productively--anyone who has spent time with a preteen knows that the most authentic conversations often happen in transit.
We make sure kids are participating in posses since we know t/weens are pack animals and that it’s got to be cool to participate in CityPathways.
In terms of collaboration, a beauty of CityPathways is that it’s at heart a platform for collaboration--of coaches and students, of students and students, of students and the broad array of opportunities in New York City, and of youth serving organizations and other youth serving organizations. Sanda co-facilitated a Youth Trajectories Affinity Group (YTAG) for the HiveNYC, which includes dozens of youth organizations. So many of them talk about wanting to point kids they work with in some capacity towards other programs that would be a great match for them but not having enough knowledge to know WHERE to send them or how to make them feel comfortable going in cold. We’ve talked to close to 100 organizations and programs that would be mapped through cPaths and they’re all eager to have a vehicle for collaborating more closely.
Who could you partner with in order to amplify your reach and impact?
Everyone! Cpaths is an infrastructure for collaboration, enabling organizations to be “found” by kids and families and schools and by one another. We aim to partner with as many community based organizations, cultural institutions, and city-sponsored programs as possible. We also plan to partner with community colleges and the CUNY Service Corps and/or Americorps to develop our CITY coaching cadre. We also plan to partner with and leverage the best existing resources that provide exposure for kids, like Thrively and RoadTrip Nation and DreamSeeDo. If you're interested in partnering, let's talk! Email email@example.com.
What makes your venture unique from other players in your market?
Optimization and integration. They say Steve Jobs' genius was recombination (not that we're comparing ourselves to Steve Jobs. We think we have slightly better manners…) New York City has the assets, we have the infrastructure, we have the human capital--what we need is to rethink, redistribute, and recombine them to ensure that they reach kids who can benefit from them most. What we need is the vision and the commitment--the will and the wallet-- to build a better city for kids. CityPathways is really a systems recombination solution, tapping into the resources that already exist and creating connective tissue so that existing opportunities can be known and navigated. In this i-generation of customization and personalization, it’s incumbent upon us as a city to create such opportunities for disadvantaged youth and to eliminate existing barriers to engagement.
cPaths has also learned from the best youth organizations in the biz--organizations like City Year and Citizen Schools that have Americorps members work with youth, school models like Expeditionary Learning and Summit Public Schools and Generation Schools that foster off-site experiences for kids to create more time for teachers, intermediaries like The After School Corporation (TASC) and Providence After School Alliance (PASA), and more.
Why hasn’t anybody done this yet?
We ask ourselves that question! Honestly, we think it’s because many of the best youth organizations are working their tails off trying to do great things for the young people they serve, and to keep their doors open. It’s hard to step back and think about systems level stuff and believe that it can be built. We currently benefit from a confluence of circumstances in NYC that make now a propitious time to develop something like this--we have a mayor who is very committed to equity and access and is making huge investments in youth, inclusive of an $140 million middle school afterschool initiative for school-based programs that could benefit from the cPaths “marketplace,” portal, curriculum, and pedagogies. We also have IDNYC, a municipal ID card available to anyone 14 and over, which provides free memberships to 33 top cultural institutions, which we hope to tap into through a related (K)IDNYC initiative we’re pitching to the city. Furthermore, we’ve spoken to hundreds of stakeholders who are VERY eager for something like cPaths to come to fruition and are eager to support its success.
How do you know there’s a market for this? What kind of traction are you getting? Have you made a prototype? What makes you think this will work?
We have done extensive user interviewing of teens and families to understand pain points and possibilities, and have done user-testing of various elements of the cPaths suite, including at a citywide youth conference called Emoti-Con attended by over 200 young people at the NY Public Library each May. We prototyped various parts of cPaths with @80 students, grades 5-8, at a middle school in Bedford Stuyvesant in Fall 2014, inclusive of 8-10 week cycles of learning that culminated in Community Celebrations and Field Trip Fridays. We helped design a charter middle school in Washington Heights using cPaths as a foundation to expand learning for students AND teachers, who have more time to plan and assess while their students are at offsite expeditions with their CITY Coaches.
Our most in-depth prototype was CITYExpeditions in the Spring and Summer of 2016, explained in detail in another section of this website. CITYExpeditions (Connecting, Inspiring, and Trailblazing with Youth) partnered at-risk 9th graders from Fannie Lou Hamer Freedom High School, an inspiring high school in one of the most under-resourced neighborhoods in the South Bronx, with community-based college-age alumni of The Knowledge House (CITY Coaches) to provide a series of high-engagement expeditions across New York City. CITYExpeditions is comprised of two programs: CITYSaturdays and CITYSummer. We were very heartened by participation and completion rates of over 90% of the cohort, and by very high satisfaction rates of youth and near peer mentors.
We plan to link expeditions to Common Core skills, as well as to the NYC Scope and Sequence for Social Studies and Next Generation Science Standards as appropriate, so that our expeditions amplify what students are responsible for (and teachers are held accountable for) while making the standards come to life through real world applications.
What have you learned through prototyping to date?
Young people are VERY enthusiastic about cPaths. They don’t currently have go-to ways to figure out how they want to spend their out of school time beyond what their parents suggest, which start to have far less currency with early adolescents. They’re hungry for exploration and experience--as long as it meets certain criteria of what’s cool.
That said, it’s hard to target teens from under-resourced communities on Saturdays and during the summer when they could be enjoying other forms of leisure. We have to be able to harness peer-power coupled with coaching by near peer youth from their own communities to make it cool AND to ensure that youth feel comfortable branching beyond their comfort zones and communities.
How will you build the portal?
You know, there is no algorithm for adolescents. We help them access their inner algorithm and make informed choices and decisions, in consultation with peers and coaches. Even after we have computers who can pass the Turing test, we don't believe that they'll be able to comprehend the quirks of teenagers. Online platforms are incredibly valuable but there are limitations on their own, especially with a target audience of youth from under-resourced communities that have been historically disenfranchised. A blended approach is key, drawing upon mapping and matching utilities coupled with actual teens actual opinions. It's pretty empowering for them to get to inform and influence the ideas of their peers too.
What amount of money are you trying to raise and how will you spend it?
Operating costs are relatively modest since we’re tapping into existing resources-- optimizing and integrating them to serve more kids more effectively without increasing fixed costs. Our biggest cost is for CITY Coaches, whom we feel it’s essential to pay and pay meaningfully. For Summer 2017, money will go predominantly towards paying our CITY Coaches--at $15/hour as the minimum wage should be; to metro cards and snacks--teenagers and college students are always ravenous!; and to documenting the preliminary impact of the program ($6000), initially through assessing mindsets--particularly around the ABCs (Agency, Belonging, and Competence) which inform their beliefs, attitudes and ways of perceiving themselves in relation to the world-- and what we call “skills for success” -- communication, collaboration, creativity, and critical thinking skills. These are 4Cs of cPaths.
We keep costs low and sustainable by leveraging a lot of probono or no cost activities, such as getting IDNYC cards for our youth, which provide free access to 33 cultural institutions, and leveraging relationships we've developed with companies and community based organizations.
We need to raise significant money to build the cPaths portal itself and to be able to serve a far broader base of students in NYC, but we're not there yet.
It’s important for us to have a complete prototype that we can use to demonstrate that cPaths can work--that it can engage young people in a broader array of experiences beyond their neighborhoods in the city in a thoughtful way that aligns with their interests, links to their learning, connects them to the cultural and civic fabric in the city, and propels them on suggestive pathways to expanded possibilities. There’s been a lot of interest in the core ideas of cPaths, and once we have a working prototype--and can invite prospective partners and investors to CITY Saturdays, show them preliminary impact on students’ knowledge of and attitude about city resources, demonstrate the degree to which their engagement, onsite and through their reviews, opens up more usage by other youth --we are confident that we can attract money to support operating costs. (For ex, most museums have budgets for attracting the new and diverse audiences that we will be tapping into.)
We hope that our curriculum and pedagogy will be broadly adopted after we’ve piloted and refined it, and that it will be broadly used by schools, communities, and families to increase the expeditions they take students on so that usage will broaden without enlarging fixed costs.
We have a long range vision of redirecting money that is currently used to fund various youth programs to instead be invested directly in kids, in what we call Student Investment Accounts. Middle class families currently invest over $8K annually in enrichment for their kids, and creating (comparable) Student Investment Accounts for low-income kids and communities is an important strategy for addressing the opportunity gap. Kids and families would have the purchasing power to choose the programs that are the best, and the best for their kid, rather than be beholden to whatever program may or may not be offered at their school. We’re far from being ready for this as a city. Developing a knowledge economy of what programs are best, judged by kids and for kids, is an important precursor to enabling informed choice.
How will you get word out about what you’re doing?
Have you seen how rumors spread like wildfire through a teen community, whether you’d like them to or not? cPaths plans to harness that virality and redirect it towards giving teens something substantive AND fun to share. We have interviewed many low income teens and consistently heard that they don’t have good sources for finding out where to go and what to do once they stop listening to their parents when they hit 7th grade (and believe us, they do.)
Part of the cPaths curriculum teaches youth to be “community organizers” and how to recruit others in their communities to join them on expeditions. We will be very intentionally triggering ripple effects, starting in the South Bronx and and next targeting nodal points in other high need communities.